Mali gained independence in 1960.Guinea Conakry, Cote d’Ivoire, and Burkina Faso border Mali to the south, Senegal and Mauritania to the west, and Algeria and Niger to the north and east.
The Republic of Mali is unique because of its famous city of Timbuktu. However, Bamako is its capital and other major towns and cities include Kalabancoro, Sikasso, Mopti, Koutiala, Kayes, Segou, Nioro, Koro, Mande, Baguineda-Camp, Pelengana, Koury, Markala and Tonka.
The Mali economy is based on agriculture and industry; along with trade on African art and craft. Cattle, goats, sheep, cassava, rice, cotton, peanuts, corn, millet, sugarcane, and fish are farmed in Mali for sale in the domestic market and for export to countries abroad.
The mineral and resource deposits of Mali include: iron-ore, manganese, bauxite, uranium, tin, crude oil, diamond, limestone, salt, gold, phosphate, and marble.
Main industries in Mali include: palm oil and kernel, food, sugar, cotton and textiles, wood and matches, peanut and peanut oil, cement and bricks plants; along with the mining of and exploration for minerals and crude oil. All this constitutes an impressive array of export products.
Mali occupies a total landmass of 1,240,192 square kilometres.
The terrain of Mali contains: Sahara desert sands, flat lands, rivers, plateaux, mountains, a collection of hills rising up to over 500 metres at the peak. Mali sits on a part of the River Niger basin. The Mali climate is tropical, with an average temperature of about 860F or 300C.
The forests and rivers of Mali contain: cotton, baobab, mahogany, and kapok trees, along with lions, a variety of birds, snakes, monkeys, panthers, giraffes, hyenas, antelopes, elephants, and crocodiles.